Tuesday, January 21, 2014

Modern European History



Topic 1: The French Revolution 

Analyse the social, economic and political structure of France under system of feudalism in France before the French Revolution in 1789. How the rigid structure gave rise to the 1789 Revolution? 


Explain the policies of King Louis XVI and the effects of the Enlightenment on the French Revolution. In your opinion, which factor played a more dominant role in the outbreak of the French Revolution? 


Discuss the developments of the French Revolution during the moderate stage, 1789- 1792. Explain the constitutional reforms introduced during this stage. 


The first Republic of France was declared in September 1792. Discuss the key events leading to the historical declaration. Why it was possible? 


Analyse why the revolutionary leadership grew more radical during the period of 1792- 1794. Discuss the developments of the Revolution during the radical stage. 


Compare the developments of the French revolution during the moderate stage and the radical stage. 


Evaluate the roles of the Jacobin Party and Maximilien Robespierre in the French Revolution. 


Explain why Maximilien Robespierre resorted to terror to achieve the goals of the French Revolution. Discuss the progress of the French Revolution during the ‘Reign of Terror.’ 


In your opinion, could the ‘Reign of Terror’ be justified as a tool to restore peace to the French Republic? 


The French Revolution was a turning point in French and even to world history. Discuss the significance of the French Revolution of 1789 in French and world history. 


Compare the societal structure of the French society before and after the French revolution. 


Compare the powers and the roles of the Church before and after the French Revolution. 


Topic 2: Napoleon 


1 Napoleon declared himself the Emperor of the French in December 1804. Describe how Napoleon rose to power domestically and internationally? 


2 Analyze the achievements of Napoleon Bonaparte as First Consul and Emperor of the French. 


3 Explain the reforms introduced by Napoleon in France. Why they were considered as significant? 


4 Give a brief introduction to the background of Napoleon. In what ways did Napoleon change the history of the French Revolution and the history of France? 


5 The French Revolution threatened the monarchical system of European states. Explain the responses of other European states, especially Austria and Russia towards Napoleon. 


6 Do you agree that the failure of the ‘Continental System’ was the main factor explaining 

the downfall of Napoleon? Explain. 


7 Do you agree that the rise of nationalism in the French conquered states was the main factor explaining Napoleon’s downfall? Explain your by referring to the rise of nationalism in Spain, Germany, and Italy. 


8 The fall of Napoleon was associated with the exhaustion of the French armies, especially after the Moscow Campaign in 1812. Do you agree that military exhaustion was the main factor explaining the downfall of Napoleon? 


9 Explain the factors that contributed to the downfall of Napoleon. In your opinion, which factor was more significant? 


10 In April 1814, Napoleon agreed to give up his position as the Emperor of the French following his defeat in the “Battle of the Nations.” Analyses the consequences of his defeat to France and Europe. 


11 Do you agree that the French Revolution made Napoleon a national hero? Explain. 


Topic 3: The 1848 Revolutions 


1 Describe the roles of nationalism, socialism and liberalism in the 1848 Revolutions by referring to the case of Germany. 


2 Evaluate the achievements of the 1848 Revolutions in Italian states against the Austrian Empire. 


3 Explain the developments of the 1848 Revolutions in Austria by referring to the developments in Austrian three cities, Vienna, Budapest and Prague. Why they failed. 


4 The outbreak of the 1848 Revolutions in Austria was associated with the rise of 

nationalism in its conquered states. Choose a state as a case study and analyse how the rise 

of nationalism contributed to outbreak of the revolution. 


5 The Paris Revolution led to the establishment of the second French Republic. Discuss the factors leading to the Paris Revolution and June Days revolution in France. 


6 Evaluate the political significances of the Paris Revolution and June Days revolution in France. What had the revolutionaries achieved? 


7 Reformers of the 1848 Revolutions aimed to reform the existing governments based on the ideal of liberalism. Analyse the role of liberalism in the developments of the revolutions in France and Germany. 


8 In your opinion, which factor was more important in explaining the 1848 Revolutions; the ideological factor or the economic factor? 


9 Do you agree that economic crisis was the main reason of the 1848 Revolutions? Explain your answer by referring to two states. 


10 By referring to the German and Italian cases, evaluate the common goals of the 1848 revolutionaries. 


11 Why did the attempt to unify Germany in the Frankfurt Parliament fail in 1848? Discuss the difficulties faced by the Parliament. 


Topic 4: Bismarck & Germany 

1 Discuss how Bismarck unified Germany through the means of ‘iron and blood’? 


2 Explain the meaning of ‘Realpolitik’. How Bismarck utilised the policy to achieve German unification? 


3 Germany remained divided until 1871. Discuss i) how the conflicts between the two most powerful German states (Prussia and Austria) prevented German unification and ii) how Prussia successfully unified Germany. 


4 The Catholic Church was considered as the enemies of the Reich. Analyze Bismarck’s Kulturkampf against the Catholic Church. Why Bismarck’s anti-Catholic campaign failed? 


5 Evaluate the effectiveness of Bismarck’s anti-socialist campaign in Germany. 


6 Contrast the policies of Bismarck towards the Protestant Church and the Catholic 

Church. 


7 Assess the policies of Bismarck towards the enemies of the Reich. 


8 Bismarck adopted a peaceful foreign policy after 1871. Analyse Bismarck’s foreign 

policy towards major European powers. 


9 Compare the foreign policies of Bismarck before and after 1871. 


10 Bismarck embarked upon the alliance system to maintain the balance of power. Evaluate the effectiveness of the alliance system entered into by Germany with European powers in maintaining the stability of Europe. 

Topic 5: The Bosnian Revolt 


1 The revolt that broke out in Bosnia Herzegovina in 1875 was related to the weaknesses of the Ottoman’s administration. Analyse the policies of the Ottoman’s administration in Bosnia Herzegovina. 


2 How far did the Muslim Christian conflict in Bosnia Herzegovina led to the revolt in 1875 against the Ottoman government? 


3 Analyse the discontents of the Christian population under the Islamic rule of the Ottoman Empire. 


4 The rebellion in Bosnia Herzegovina in 1875 was a conspiracy planned by Serbia against the Ottoman government. Discuss the role of Serbia in the revolt. 


5 The revolt in Bosnia Herzegovina (1875) would not have taken place without the intervention of foreign states especially Serbia. Discuss. 


6 Discuss the immediate event which led to the Bosnian revolt in 1875. By referring to the key events in the revolt, explain why a series of peaceful negotiations between the rebel leaders and government representatives in 1875 failed? 


7 Why Russia was declared a war against the Ottoman regime in 1878? Discuss how the Russian involvement influenced the end result of the Bosnian revolt. 


8 Analyse the reactions of the Great Powers especially the British, Germany and France towards the Bosnian revolt, 1875-1878. 


9 Discuss the effects of the interference of the Great Powers (except Russia) in the rebellion of Bosnia Herzegovina. Had they effectively restored the peace in Bosnia Herzegovina? 


10 The war between Russia and the Ottoman government was brought to an end with the signing of the San Stefano Treaty of 1878. Discuss i) the conflict between Russia and the Ottoman government and ii) the reactions of the Great Powers towards this treaty. 


Topic 6: The 1905 Russian Revolution 


1 Analyse the political, social and economic background of Russia under the imperial government before the outbreak of the 1905 Revolution. 

2 Discuss the role of the Marxists in the 1905 Revolution. Evaluate the differences between Marxism and Leninism. 

3 Do you agree that the weaknesses of Tsar Nicholas II administration were the major factor leading to the 1905 Russian Revolution? Discuss. 

4 Explain the differences between the Bolsheviks and the Mensheviks. Discuss the role of these two groups in the 1905 Russian Revolution. 

5 The October Manifesto was issued by Tsar Nicholas II to ease the opposition of the revolutionaries by promising constitutional reforms in Russia. Evaluate the effectiveness of the reforms introduced by the Tzar. 

6 Make a comparative study between the French Revolution of 1875 and the Russian Revolution of 1905. 

7 Do you agree that the Revol 

Topic 7: The 1917 Russian Revolutions 


1 On 17 March 1917, Russia became a republic. Evaluate the factors leading to the revolution against the Tsarist regime in 1917? 


2 Explain the roles the Bolsheviks in the 1917 Russian Revolution. 

3 The Bolshevik Revolution of November 1917 signified the seizure of political power by Lenin. Describe the factors contributing to the success of the Revolution? 

4 Do you agree that the November Revolution would not be a successful event without the extraordinary leadership and personality of Lenin? Discuss. 

5 After the November Revolution of 1917, Russia under the leadership of Lenin experienced resistance from old tsarist reactionaries, liberals, bourgeois, anti-socialists, Mensheviks and Social Revolutionaries. Discuss the policies and reactions of the new regime during the period of the civil war, 1918-22. 

6 During the period of the Russian Civil War 1918-1922, anti-Bolsheviks organized the ‘White Terror’ against socialist militants and suspected Bolshevik sympathizers. Discuss significance of this event. 

7 During the period of the Russian Civil War 1918-1922, the ‘Red Terror’ broke out. It was aimed at the extermination of all who opposed the new regime. Evaluate the success of the Red Army and the Bolshevik Terror in achieving its objectives. 


8 Examine the involvement of foreign powers in the Russian civil war, 1918-1922. 

9 Analyse the domestic and internationally problems confronted by the newly formed Communist Party of Russia. 

10 With the end of the civil wars and foreign intervention, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was established in 1922. Analyse the USSR system of government. 


11 Explain why Lenin introduced the New Economic Policy (NEP) in 1921. What were the changes sought under the NEP? 

12 After the death of Lenin in 1924, there was a struggle for the control of the Communist Party between Stalin and Trotsky. Discuss i) why Trotsky failed to gain the majority support of the members and ii) how Stalin secured the leadership of the Communist Party. 


13 Stalin launched the First Five-Year Plan in 1928, aimed at rapid industrialization and the collectivization of agriculture. Assess the influence of this policy on Soviet economic developments. 


14 Stalin’s economic policy was achieved at the expense of the people. The peasants bore the burden of the collectivization of agriculture and industrialization in Russia was put through at great sacrifice on part of the people. Discuss the negative effects (social costs) of Stalin’s economic policy on the people. 


15 Stalin’s economic policy aroused significant challenges against him within the party ranks. Discuss. 


16 Contrast the policies of Lenin and Stalin. 

17 Compare between the Russian Revolution of 1905 and the Russian Revolution of 1917.


18 In the 1930s, the Communist Party was troubled by internal conflicts. Discuss i) the issues which led to the dissatisfactions of the members towards Stalin and ii) the purging of Stalin’s opponents from the party. 

19 Evaluate how Stalin consolidated his power and established his dictatorship in Russia 


Topic 8: World War 1 


1 Analyse how the event of the assassination of Franz Ferdinand, the Prince of Hungary led to the outbreak of World War 1? 


2 Discuss the reactions of the Great Powers towards the crisis between Austria-Hungary and Serbia in the Balkan Peninsular. 


3 Discuss why Russia was involved in World War 1. Explain the consequences of the war on the political developments in Russia. 


4 Describe the involvement of Germany in World War 1. 


5 In your opinion, which country was regarded as the most responsible for the outbreak of the First World War? Justify your answer. 


6 Britain and France did not have any specific interests in the Balkan peninsular. Analyse the factors that encouraged Britain and France to join the World War 1. 


7 What were the common objectives shared by the member states of the Triple Alliance (Austria-Hungary, Germany and Italy)? Discuss their role in the outbreak of the First World War. 


8 Discuss the common grounds for cooperation among the member states of the Triple Entente (Britain, France and Russia). Discuss their role in the outbreak of the First World War. 


9 Do you agree that the treaty system entered into by the European states caused the outbreak of World War 1? Explain. 


10 In the aftermath of the war, Weimar Germany suffered serious economic consequences, social problems and political unrests. Analyse the impacts of the war in Germany. 


11 Analyse the post-war situation in Italy. Discuss how the conditions facilitated the seizure of power by Mussolini. 


12 Explain the meaning of ‘Fascism’. Discuss the factors leading to the rise of Fascism in Italy. 


13 After the war, the German Empire collapsed and the Weimar Republic was established in 1919. Analyse the problems confronted by the Weimar republic, which resulted in the end of the republic in 1933. 

Topic 9: Hitler and Germany 

1 The Treaty of Versailles of 1919 placed blame for the entire World War 1 upon Germany. Analyse the reactions of Germany towards the Treaty of Versailles. 


2 Explain how Germany became a dictatorship under Hitler 


3 Analyse how Hitler and his party (the National Socialist German Workers’ Party) came to power in Germany 


4 Explain the meaning ‘Nazism’. Analyze the factors contributed to the rise of Nazism in the period between the two World Wars. 


5 Evaluate the policies of Hitler towards the Jews. How Hitler justify his anti-Semitic policies? 


6 The diary of Anne Frank documented the life of a Jewish family living under the terror of Hitler’s policy. Based on the diary, discuss the discriminations faced by the German Jews. 


7 Analyse the policies of Hitler towards the Catholic Church and communists in Germany. 


8 Hitler’s racial policy aimed to maintain the racial purity of the Aryan race. Analyse his treatment of those unwanted elements of the society (homosexuals, physically and mentally disabled, and the Gipsies) 


9 Evaluate Hitler’s economic policy during the Great Repression. 

Tugasan ini sebenarnya kami pernah buat sebelum ini cuma mungkin soalannya diubah-ubah setiap semester. Namun kehendak soalan sebenarnya adalah hampir sama setiap semester.

Sekiranya anda semua berasa pening sebab dah takdea idea, sibuk menguruskan kerja sehingga tidak ada masa untuk menaip tugasan. Anda boleh terus ke SINI untuk mendapatkan khidmat menaip tugasan atau ke SINI untuk mendapatkan contoh tugasan terdahulu sebagai rujukan.
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